Research forms the corner stone of Wallacei's development. Wallacei is the result of many years of research and various collaborations, which continues to this day. It brings us insurmountable pleasure when we see Wallacei used in various research projects worldwide, it both helps us understand Wallacei's impact in various domains as well as assists us to better understand in which direction Wallacei should move in as we continuously develop the tool.

On this page are various publications that have used Wallacei - some from within our own research as well as from others' research.

 

If you have used Wallacei in your research, please send a link to your publication or information about your research to info@wallacei.com  

Research

Makki, M. and Showkatbakhsh, M. (2018) ‘Control of Morphological Variation Through Population Based Fitness Criteria’, Learning, Adapting and Prototyping, Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference, Beijing, China, The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, vol. 1, pp. 153–162.​

Makki, M., Showkatbakhsh, M., Tabony, A. and Weinstock, M. (2018) ‘Evolutionary Algorithms for Generating Urban Morphology: Variations and Multiple Objectives’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 5–35.

Navarro, D., Makki, M. and Bermejo, A. (2018) ‘Urban-Tissue Optimization through Evolutionary Computation’, Mathematics, vol. 6, no. Special Issue: Evolutionary Computation, pp. 1–16.

Ali, A. K., Lee, O. J. and Song, H. (2020) ‘Robot-based facade spatial assembly optimization’, Journal of Building Engineering, Elsevier, vol. 33, pp. 1–16.

Ali, A. K., Song, H., Lee, O. J., Kim, E. S. and Mohammed Ali, H. H. (2020) ‘Multi-Agent-Based Urban Vegetation Design’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, vol. 17, no. 9, p. 3075.

Choi, J., Nguyen, P. C. T. and Makki, M. (2020) ‘The design of social and cultural orientated urban tissues through evolutionary processes’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, SAGE Publications, pp. 1–29.

Makki, M., Matsuoka, M., Ilic, A., Franceschini, L. and Beneitez, J. (2020) ‘Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Japanese Fabrication and Advanced Digital Tools’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 557–564.

Randall, M. Kordrostami, T., Makki, M. (2020) ‘The Taikoo Shing Superblock: Addressing urban stresses through sequential evolutionary simulations’, D. Holzer, W. Nakapan, A. Globa, I. Koh (eds.), Proceedings of the 25th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Online, pp. 415-424.

Showkatbakhsh, M., Erdine, E. and Rodriguez, A. L. (2020) ‘Multi-Objective Optimization of Robotically Bent In-Situ Reinforcement System’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 171–178.

Showkatbakhsh, M. and Kaviani, S. (2020) ‘Homeostatic generative design process: Emergence of the adaptive architectural form and skin to excessive solar radiation’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England, pp. 1–16.

Showkatbakhsh, M. and Makki, M. (2020) ‘Application of Homeostatic Principles within Evolutionary Design Processes: Adaptive Urban Tissues’, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, Oxford, vol. 7, no. 1, pp 1 -17.

Zhai, Y. and Riederer, E. (2020) ‘Context Specific Evolutionary Design: An Analysis on Computational Abstraction of Modern Urban Complexity’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 245–252.

Petrov, M. and Walker, J. (2020) ‘Optioneering Methods for Optimization - Methods of exploring primary and secondary performance criteria in urban design’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 29-36.

Jansen, I. and Piątek, Ł. (2020) ‘The Evolutionary-algorithm-based Automation of the Initial Stage of Apartment Building Design’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 105-114.

Andriasyan, M., Zanelli, A., Yeghikyan, G., Asher, R. and Haeusler, H. (2020) ‘Algorithmic Planning and Assessment of Emergency Settlements and Refugee Camps’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 115-124.

Mostafavi, S., Kastrati, V., Badr, H. and Mazlan, Sh. (2020) ‘Design Computation to Robotic Production Methods for Reciprocal Tessellation of Free-from Timber Structures - Design, production, and assembly of 100 years Bauhaus wood Pavilion’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 413-422.

Buš, P. (2020) ‘User-driven Configurable Architectural Assemblies - Towards artificial intelligence-embedded responsive environments’, Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 483-490.

Paper Title:

Control of Morphological Variation Through Population Based Fitness Criteria (Download)

 

Citation:

Makki, M. and Showkatbakhsh, M. (2018) ‘Control of Morphological Variation Through Population Based Fitness Criteria’, Learning, Adapting and Prototyping, Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference, Beijing, China, The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, vol. 1, pp. 153–162.

 

Abstract:

A primary challenge for the application of an evolutionary process as a design tool is the ability to maintain variation amongst design solutions while simultaneously increasing in fitness. The ‘golden rule’ of balancing exploration versus exploitation of solutions within the population becomes more critical when the solution set is required to present a controlled degree of phenotypic variation but ensure that convergence of the solution set continues towards increased levels of fitness. The experiments presented within this paper address the control of variation throughout the simulation by means of incorporating a population-based fitness criterion that is utilised as a fitness objective and is calculated dynamically throughout the algorithmic run in both single and multi objective design problems.

 

Paper Title:

Evolutionary Algorithms for Generating Urban Morphology: Variations and Multiple Objectives (Download)

 

Citation:

Makki, M., Showkatbakhsh, M., Tabony, A. and Weinstock, M. (2018) ‘Evolutionary Algorithms for Generating Urban Morphology: Variations and Multiple Objectives’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 5–35.

 

Abstract:

Morphological variation of urban tissues, which evolve through the optimisation of multiple conflicting objectives, benefit significantly from the application of robust metaheuristic search processes that utilise search and optimisation mechanisms for design problems that have no clear single optimal solution, as well as a solution search space that is too large for a ‘brute-force’ manual approach. As such, and within the context of the experiments presented within this article, the rapidly changing environmental, climatic and demographic global conditions necessitates the utilisation of stochastic search processes for generating design solutions that optimise for multiple conflicting objectives by means of controlled and directed morphological variation within the urban fabric.

 

Paper Title:

Urban-Tissue Optimization through Evolutionary Computation (Download)

 

Citation:

Navarro, D., Makki, M. and Bermejo, A. (2018) ‘Urban-Tissue Optimization through Evolutionary Computation’, Mathematics, vol. 6, no. Special Issue: Evolutionary Computation, pp. 1–16.

 

Abstract:

The experiments analyzed in this paper focus their research on the use of Evolutionary Computation (EC) applied to a parametrized urban tissue. Through the application of EC, it is possible to develop a design under a single model that addresses multiple conflicting objectives. The experiments presented are based on Cerdà’s master plan in Barcelona, specifically on the iconic Eixample block which is grouped into a 4 × 4 urban Superblock. The proposal aims to reach the existing high density of the city while reclaiming the block relations proposed by Cerdà’s original plan. Generating and ranking multiple individuals in a population through several generations ensures a flexible solution rather than a single “optimal” one. Final results in the Pareto front show a successful and diverse set of solutions that approximate Cerdà’s and the existing Barcelona’s Eixample states. Further analysis proposes different methodologies and considerations to choose appropriate individuals within the front depending on design requirements.

 

Paper Title:

Robot-Based Facade Spatial Assembly Optimization (Download)

 

Citation:

Ali, A. K., Lee, O. J. and Song, H. (2020) ‘Robot-based facade spatial assembly optimization’, Journal of Building Engineering, Elsevier, vol. 33, pp. 1–16.

 

Abstract:

Robotic involvement in construction is still in its initial stages compared to other industries. Conventionally, the facade panel picking position is done manually by trial and error. The designer chooses a place to pick up a facade piece within reach of the robot arm, and then simulates the entire pick and place process in a digital model before applying to the assembly on the construction job site. After that the designer might detect errors, collisions, or singularities, which require the designer to modify the position of picking by changing the location or orientation of the module, thus repeating the simulation cycle until they reach a satisfactory result with no errors or collisions. This work is usually considered monotonous, inefficient, and time consuming. Therefore, this research proposes an optimization process implemented in design stage of construction project via static performance criteria in order to automatically search for the best picking location within the reach of the robot arm. The goal is to automate the process of robot location finding and solve the limitations of modular robot assembly simulation processes in order to allow for effective execution during the robotic construction implementation. The proposed approach, called iFobot, consists of three modules: Facade Generative Modeling (iFobot-D), Robot Position Optimization (iFobot-B), and Culminating Feedback to BIM (iFobot-L). Specifically, the scope of the paper is limited to the robot arm and facade picking and placing location finding processes. This research allows initial assessment of the possible assembly process as regards the dimensions of modules and hence the overall dimensions of the system, which subsequently influences assembly implementation in the construction job site. A set of generative algorithms were developed using commercially developed visual programming language that automatically populate facade modules on the building envelope, find the robot and facade assembly locations with their quantity take-off, and integrate the module with the BIM environment. A case study has been developed to validate and test the proposed system. The results prove that the system generates optimized locations for the robot arm workstations with the lowest possible collision and reachability rate while addressing robot operation time reduction, thus reducing risks encountered during facade assembly and increasing productivity. Moreover, the iFobot is predicted to influence decision making during the facade assembly process on a physical construction job site.

 

Paper Title:

Multi-Agent-Based Urban Vegetation Design (Download)

 

Citation:

Ali, A. K., Song, H., Lee, O. J., Kim, E. S. and Mohammed Ali, H. H. (2020) ‘Multi-Agent-Based Urban Vegetation Design’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, vol. 17, no. 9, p. 3075.

 

Abstract:

Urban vegetation is an essential element of the urban city pedestrian walkway. Despite city forest regulations and urban planning best practices, vegetation planning lacks clear comprehension and compatibility with other urban elements surrounding it. Urban planners and academic researchers currently devote vital attention to include most of the urban elements and their impact on the occupants and the environment in the planning stage of urban development. With the advancement in computational design, they have developed various algorithms to generate design alternatives and measure their impact on the environment that meets occupants’ needs and perceptions of their city. In particular, multi-agent-based simulations show great promise in developing rule compliance with urban vegetation design tools. This paper proposed an automatic urban vegetation city rule compliance approach for pedestrian pathway vegetation, leveraging multi-agent system and algorithmic modeling tools. This approach comprises three modules: rule compliance (T-Rule), street vegetation design tool (T-Design), and multi-agent alternative generation (T-Agent). Notably, the scope of the paper is limited to trees, shrubbery, and seating area configurations in the urban pathway context. To validate the developed design tool, a case study was tested, and the vegetation design tool generated the expected results successfully. A questionnaire was conducted to give feedback on the use of the developed tool for enhancing positive experience of the developed tool. It is anticipated that the proposed tool has the potential to aid urban planners in decision-making and develop more practical vegetation planting plans compared with the conventional Two-Dimensional (2D) plans, and give the city occupants the chance to take part in shaping their city by merely selecting from predefined parameters in a user interface to generate their neighborhood pathway vegetation plans. Moreover, this approach can be extended to be embedded in an interactive map where city occupants can shape their neighborhood greenery and give feedback to urban planners for decision-making.

 

Paper Title:

The Design of Social and Cultural Orientated Urban Tissues Through Evolutionary Processes (Download)

 

Citation:

Choi, J., Nguyen, P. C. T. and Makki, M. (2020) ‘The design of social and cultural orientated urban tissues through evolutionary processes’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, SAGE Publications, pp. 1–29.

 

Abstract:

The research examines how social and cultural properties can be utilised as an alternative planning scheme to improve urban morphology and enhance the overall experience of individuals within the city. The aim is for these socio-cultural properties to be translated into quantitative data sets that define the morphological characteristics of the urban tissue. Through the use of evolutionary optimisation methods, the process of urban growth is simulated through a series of individuals that adapt and optimise for multiple design criteria. The experiment presented quantifies the social and cultural properties of a superblock within the city of Kyoto to generate an urban tissue that is susceptible to future growth.

 

Paper Title:

Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Japanese Fabrication and Advanced Digital Tools (Download)

 

Citation:

Makki, M., Matsuoka, M., Ilic, A., Franceschini, L. and Beneitez, J. (2020) ‘Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Japanese Fabrication and Advanced Digital Tools’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 557–564.

 

Abstract:

Traditional Japanese woodworking techniques have been inherited between generations in the past millennia through the Daiku, the master carpenter that teaches apprentices the precise and valuable skills of carpentry through methodical and time-intensive processes. Throughout the 21st Century, with the development of advanced construction methods, coupled with younger generations exhibiting little interest in following the Daiku, this valuable cultural artform is becoming less prevalent in Japanese culture. However, the development of advanced digital tools offers an avenue through which the knowledge and skills of older generations can be both transferred and developed by younger generations. In this context, the paper examines the relationship between traditional Japanese woodworking and advanced computational tools by bringing experts from both disciplines for the design and construction of a Japanese Pagoda, in which the significance of bridging the gap between both domains is highlighted across the design, fabrication and assembly of the project.

 

Paper Title:

The Taikoo Shing Superblock: Addressing Urban Stresses Through Sequential Evolutionary Simulations (Download)

 

Citation:

Randall, M. Kordrostami, T., Makki, M. (2020) ‘The Taikoo Shing Superblock: Addressing urban stresses through sequential evolutionary simulations’, D. Holzer, W. Nakapan, A. Globa, I. Koh (eds.), Proceedings of the 25th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Online, pp. 415-424.

 

Abstract:

The multiplicity of networks, connections and relationships that exist in every city - complex and varied - are inherent to the urban fabric. Variation within the built form is integral to ensure adaptability to environmental and climatic conditions imposed on cities over generations. This research aims to highlight the benefits of utilizing sequential evolutionary simulations, to arrive at a more resolved solution-set that addresses urban challenges of the Taiko Shing superblock in Hong Kong.

 

Paper Title:

Multi-Objective Optimization of Robotically Bent In-Situ Reinforcement System (Download)

 

Citation:

Showkatbakhsh, M., Erdine, E. and Rodriguez, A. L. (2020) ‘Multi-Objective Optimization of Robotically Bent In-Situ Reinforcement System’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 171–178.

 

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel process towards the application of multi-objective optimization as the form-finding process for the integration of computational design, fabrication, and construction sequences. The design and construction of a doubly curved large-scale prototype made of textilereinforced GRC shotcrete with a robotically fabricated insitu reinforcement system serves as the case study for the proposed methodology. Global geometry form-finding process takes into consideration the location and geometrical properties of the in-situ reinforcement rebar system, robotic rod-bending constraints, structural performance, and functional objectives. These criteria are integrated through the application of a multi-objective optimization method in order to formulate multiple trade-off solutions that possess multiple constraints (fitness objectives) which are primarily in conflict with each other and are intended towards automation in fabrication. The primary contribution of the research is the demonstration of a multi-objective optimization methodology that incorporates geometrical form-finding, material and fabrication constraints, and FEA as design drivers during the early stages of design. This optimization method can be further extended and utilized across a multitude of scales in order to save energy, materials, and cost in architectural projects.

 

Paper Title:

Homeostatic Generative Design Process: Emergence of the Adaptive Architectural Form and Skin to Excessive Solar Radiation (Download)

 

Citation:

Showkatbakhsh, M. and Kaviani, S. (2020) ‘Homeostatic generative design process: Emergence of the adaptive architectural form and skin to excessive solar radiation’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England, pp. 1–16.

 

Abstract:

Natural organisms through their evolutionary developments, acquire adaptive morphological and behavioural characteristics within their environmental contexts. Through homeostatic behaviours, organisms, individually and collectively, will sustain internal and external equilibrium in face of environmental fluctuations. There is a wide range of morphological and behavioural traits across multiple species that are rooted in their homeostatic mechanisms throughout their lives. This paper presents an evolutionary design workflow with embedded homeostatic principles to generate a building cluster that is adapted to the contexts with extreme solar radiation.

 
 

Paper Title:

Application of Homeostatic Principles within Evolutionary Design Processes: Adaptive Urban Tissues (Download)

 

Citation:

Showkatbakhsh, M. and Makki, M. (2020) ‘Application of Homeostatic Principles within Evolutionary Design Processes: Adaptive Urban Tissues’, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, Oxford, vol. 7, no. 1, pp 1 -17.

 

Abstract:

Nature is a repository of dynamic and intertwined processes ready to be analyzed and simulated. Homeostasis, as a scale-free and universal biological process across all species, ensures adaptability to perturbations caused by intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. Homeostatic processes by which species maintain their stability are strongly present through ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of living beings. Forms and behaviors of species are imperative to their homeostatic conditions. Although biomimicry has been established for many decades, and has made significant contributions to engineering and architecture, homeostasis has rarely been part of this field of research. The experiments presented in this paper aim to examine the applicability of biological principles of homeostasis into generative design processes in order to evolve urban superblocks with a degree of morphological and behavioral adaptation to environmental changes; the objective is to eventually develop a modus operandi for the design and development of cities with embedded dynamic adaptation attributes.

Paper Title:

Context Specific Evolutionary Design: An Analysis on Computational Abstraction of Modern Urban Complexity (Download)

 

Citation:

Zhai, Y. and Riederer, E. (2020) ‘Context Specific Evolutionary Design: An Analysis on Computational Abstraction of Modern Urban Complexity’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 245–252.

 

Abstract:

Evolutionary design is used to adapt urban systems to predictions such as rapid growing density and effects of climate change scenarios. These effects have weakened the strategies on which ancient cities were built and thrived. Fez el Bali’s Medina can be seen as a drastic case and is therefore chosen for theoretical investigations. The Medina nowadays has lost its quality as a functioning system, characterized by a coherent relation of hierarchical order and randomness based on a cultural heritage. In this paper’s architectural approach a city is redeveloped on the basis of the earlier well-functioning ancient city after which an urban patch is then developed further. In order to react to the unpredictable changing conditions, we propose an open system generated by outlining the qualities the Medina was built on and developing this further to be able to react to changes within the city and beyond it. The key element of this paper is to expand on the level of complexity in Evolutionary Design by operating on the urban scale and contextualized to push its computational potential. Expanding on the application of design strategies of Genetic Algorithms (GA) we incorporate rule-based multi-scale procedural modeling based on the vernacular urban qualities, while examine urban morphological variation evolved in response to conflicting criteria by means of a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Approach (MOEA).

 

Paper Title:

Optioneering Methods for Optimization - Methods of exploring primary and secondary performance criteria in urban design (Download)

 

Citation:

Petrov, M. and Walker, J. (2020) ‘Optioneering Methods for Optimization - Methods of exploring primary and secondary performance criteria in urban design’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 29-36.

 

Abstract:

Architectural design optimization (ADO) is the notion of satisfying performance criteria within a constraint parameter space to find the best solution with the least trade-offs. This process tends to produce a vast amount of designs of varying quality and requires design space exploration (DSE) to review the myriad of designs so that an optimal candidate for design development can be chosen. This paper will explore different applied workflows for using optimization in an urban design competition, which seek to overcome the limitations of using optimization and DSE with a time constraint.

 

Paper Title:

The Evolutionary-algorithm-based Automation of the Initial Stage of Apartment Building Design (Download)

 

Citation:

Jansen, I. and Piątek, Ł. (2020) ‘The Evolutionary-algorithm-based Automation of the Initial Stage of Apartment Building Design’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 105-114.

 

Abstract:

The development of information technologies has resulted in a strong return of interest in the concept of automating the design process. Most of the attempts such as works of Hersey and Freedman, Duarte or the PRISM application are based on shape grammars. Another approach is evolutionary simulations in concept creation augmentation such as works of Dogan, Saratsis and Reinhart or Nahara and Terzidis.This study examines to what extent evolutionary algorithms can be used to automate early stages of residential multi-family building architectural design. To facilitate informed decision-making, a tool capable of analysing a building plot and proposing the best fitting building shape was designed and tested with Polish legal regulations taken into consideration.A script generating, analysing, and evolutionally optimising a 3D model of the apartment building, was developed. All models met the basic legal conditions and were optimised by four criteria - view obstruction, insolation, maximal allowed floor area built and building compactness. The script was later used on selected building plots producing thousands of solutions. The best performing solutions were selected and presented together with their calculated parameters.

 

Paper Title:

Algorithmic Planning and Assessment of Emergency Settlements and Refugee Camps (Download)

 

Citation:

Andriasyan, M., Zanelli, A., Yeghikyan, G., Asher, R. and Haeusler, H. (2020) ‘Algorithmic Planning and Assessment of Emergency Settlements and Refugee Camps’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 115-124.

 

Abstract:

The planning quality of refugee camps profoundly affects the people living there. Because of the short time span allotted to planners due to the state of emergency, camps are often poorly planned or not planned at all. This paper proposes tools and methods developed through computational modelling algorithms that can enhance the design procedure and provide instant feedback about the plan performance to the planner. The developed planning framework allows defining the planning guidelines which will be tested for compliance. The paper also shows case studies of analysing an existing refugee camp.

 

Paper Title:

Design Computation to Robotic Production Methods for Reciprocal Tessellation of Free-from Timber Structures - Design, production, and assembly of 100 years Bauhaus wood Pavilion (Download)

 

Citation:

Mostafavi, S., Kastrati, V., Badr, H. and Mazlan, Sh. (2020) ‘Design Computation to Robotic Production Methods for Reciprocal Tessellation of Free-from Timber Structures - Design, production, and assembly of 100 years Bauhaus wood Pavilion’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 413-422.

 

Abstract:

In a reciprocal frame structure, at any given joint, there are only two members connecting to each other. Therefore, the joints in a standard reciprocal structure are topologically identical. Due to these topological similarities between the joints, the parametric modeling of a reciprocal frame structure applied to a geometrically regular surface, such as domes and symmetric shells, is practical, and it has been explored in several projects previously. In this context, this paper presents an integrated computational design to robotic production process of a free form wooden pavilion with a non-uniform tessellation pattern with differentiated cell sizes. The case study, on the one hand, elaborates on the challenges of solving reciprocal tessellation on complex geometries, and on the other hand, discusses the chosen and developed robotic production approach as a feedback loop that informs the design process.

 

Paper Title:

User-driven Configurable Architectural Assemblies - Towards artificial intelligence-embedded responsive environments (Download)

 

Citation:

Buš, P. (2020) ‘User-driven Configurable Architectural Assemblies - Towards artificial intelligence-embedded responsive environments’, Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 483-490.

 

Abstract:

The paper theoretically elaborates the idea of individual users' customisation activities to create and configure responsive spatial scenarios by means of reconfigurable interactive adaptive assemblies. It reflects Gordon Pask's concept of human and device interaction based on its unpredictable notion speculating a potential to be enhanced by artificial intelligence learning approach of an assembly linked with human activator's participative inputs. Such a link of artificial intelligence, human agency and interactive assembly capable to generate its own spatial configurations by itself and users' stimuli may lead to a new understanding of humans' role in the creation of spatial scenarios. The occupants take the prime role in the evolution of spatial conditions in this respect. The paper aims to position an interaction between the human agents and artificial devices as a participatory and responsive design act to facilitate creative potential of participants as unique individuals without pre-specified or pre-programmed goal set by the designer. Such an approach will pave a way towards true autonomy of responsive built environments, determined by an individual human agent and behaviour of the spatial assemblies to create authentic responsive built forms in a digital and physical space.

 

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