Research forms the corner stone of Wallacei's development. Wallacei is the result of many years of research and various collaborations, which continues to this day. It brings us insurmountable pleasure when we see Wallacei used in various research projects worldwide, it both helps us understand Wallacei's impact in various domains as well as assists us to better understand in which direction Wallacei should move in as we continuously develop the tool.

On this page are various publications that have used Wallacei - some from within our own research as well as from others' research.

 

If you have used Wallacei in your research, please send a link to your publication or information about your research to info@wallacei.com  

Research

Makki, M. and Showkatbakhsh, M. (2018) ‘Control of Morphological Variation Through Population Based Fitness Criteria’, Learning, Adapting and Prototyping, Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference, Beijing, China, The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, vol. 1, pp. 153–162.​

Makki, M., Showkatbakhsh, M., Tabony, A. and Weinstock, M. (2018) ‘Evolutionary Algorithms for Generating Urban Morphology: Variations and Multiple Objectives’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 5–35.

Navarro, D., Makki, M. and Bermejo, A. (2018) ‘Urban-Tissue Optimization through Evolutionary Computation’, Mathematics, vol. 6, no. Special Issue: Evolutionary Computation, pp. 1–16.

Ali, A. K., Lee, O. J. and Song, H. (2020) ‘Robot-based facade spatial assembly optimization’, Journal of Building Engineering, Elsevier, vol. 33, pp. 1–16.

Ali, A. K., Song, H., Lee, O. J., Kim, E. S. and Mohammed Ali, H. H. (2020) ‘Multi-Agent-Based Urban Vegetation Design’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, vol. 17, no. 9, p. 3075.

Choi, J., Nguyen, P. C. T. and Makki, M. (2020) ‘The design of social and cultural orientated urban tissues through evolutionary processes’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, SAGE Publications, pp. 1–29.

Makki, M., Matsuoka, M., Ilic, A., Franceschini, L. and Beneitez, J. (2020) ‘Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Japanese Fabrication and Advanced Digital Tools’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 557–564.

Randall, M. Kordrostami, T., Makki, M. (2020) ‘The Taikoo Shing Superblock: Addressing urban stresses through sequential evolutionary simulations’, D. Holzer, W. Nakapan, A. Globa, I. Koh (eds.), Proceedings of the 25th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Online, pp. 415-424.

Showkatbakhsh, M., Erdine, E. and Rodriguez, A. L. (2020) ‘Multi-Objective Optimization of Robotically Bent In-Situ Reinforcement System’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 171–178.

Showkatbakhsh, M. and Kaviani, S. (2020) ‘Homeostatic generative design process: Emergence of the adaptive architectural form and skin to excessive solar radiation’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England, pp. 1–16.

Showkatbakhsh, M. and Makki, M. (2020) ‘Application of Homeostatic Principles within Evolutionary Design Processes: Adaptive Urban Tissues’, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, Oxford, vol. 7, no. 1, pp 1 -17.

Zhai, Y. and Riederer, E. (2020) ‘Context Specific Evolutionary Design: An Analysis on Computational Abstraction of Modern Urban Complexity’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 245–252.

Petrov, M. and Walker, J. (2020) ‘Optioneering Methods for Optimization - Methods of exploring primary and secondary performance criteria in urban design’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 29-36.

Jansen, I. and Piątek, Ł. (2020) ‘The Evolutionary-algorithm-based Automation of the Initial Stage of Apartment Building Design’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 105-114.

Andriasyan, M., Zanelli, A., Yeghikyan, G., Asher, R. and Haeusler, H. (2020) ‘Algorithmic Planning and Assessment of Emergency Settlements and Refugee Camps’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 115-124.

Mostafavi, S., Kastrati, V., Badr, H. and Mazlan, Sh. (2020) ‘Design Computation to Robotic Production Methods for Reciprocal Tessellation of Free-from Timber Structures - Design, production, and assembly of 100 years Bauhaus wood Pavilion’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 413-422.

Buš, P. (2020) ‘User-driven Configurable Architectural Assemblies - Towards artificial intelligence-embedded responsive environments’, Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 483-490.

Canestrino, Giuseppe; Laura, Greco; Spada, Francesco; Lucente, Roberta; "Generating architectural plan with evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms: a benchmark case with an existent construction system", p. 149-156 . In: Congreso SIGraDi 2020. São Paulo: Blucher, 2020. ISSN 2318-6968, DOI 10.5151/sigradi2020-21

Showkatbakhsh, M., Kaviani, S., Weinstock, M. (2021) “Evolutionary Design Processes with Embedded Homeostatic Principles: Adaptation of Architectural Form and Skin to Excessive Solar Radiation”, Journal of Computer-Aided Design and Applications, vol 18 (5) pp. 914 – 953

Chi, D. A., González M., E., Valdivia, R. and Gutiérrez J., E. (2021) ‘Parametric Design and Comfort Optimization of Dynamic Shading Structures’, Sustainability, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, vol. 13, no. 14, p. 7670

Cheddadi, A., Hotta, K. and Ikeda, Y. (2021) ‘Exploring the Self-Organizing Structure of the Moroccan Medina: A Simulation Model for Generating Urban Form’, Architecture in the Age of Disruptive Technologies: Transformations and Challenges, Cairo, Egypt, pp. 672–685

Zhao, J., Lombardi, D., Chen, H., Agkathidis, A. (2021) 'Reinterpretation of the Dougong Joint by the use of Parametric Tools and Robotic Fabrication Techniques' Proceedings of the 39th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia, 8-10 September 2021, pp. 233-242

Van Ameijde, J., Ma, C. Y., Goepel, G., Kirsten, C. and Wong, J. (2021) ‘Data-driven placemaking: Public space canopy design through multi-objective optimisation considering shading, structural and social performance’, Frontiers of Architectural Research [Online]. DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2021.10.007

Saltık, E. (2021). Generating optimal high-rise building suggestions according to solar radiation and shade using genetic algorithms. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 25-50.

Sorooshnia, E., Rashidi, M., Rahnamayiezekavat, P., Rezaei, F. and Samali, B. (2021) ‘Optimum external shading system for counterbalancing glare probability and daylight illuminance in Sydney’s residential buildings’, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print, no. ahead-of-print [Online]. DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2021-0191

 

Cheddadi, M., Hotta, K., Ikeda, Y., (2019), 'Reinterpreting Self-organizing Urban Tissues by Designing a Generative Model', Revisiting the Role of Architecture for 'Surviving’ Development. 53rd International Conference of the Architectural Science Association 2019, Avlokita Agrawal and Rajat Gupta (eds), pp. 175–184. © published by the Architectural Science Association

 

 

Menendez, L., Espinosa Escudero, M., Somonte, M., (2021) 'Design of a cylindrical container using the Wallacei evolutionary engine', Técnica industrial, ISSN 0040-1838, N 328,, ags. 38-43.

Lima, F., Brown, N., Duarte, J., (2021) 'Urban Design Optimization: Generative Approaches towards Urban Fabrics with Improved Transit Accessibility and Walkability - generative approaches towards urban fabrics with improved transit accessibility and walkability'

Paper Title:

Control of Morphological Variation Through Population Based Fitness Criteria (Download)

 

Citation:

Makki, M. and Showkatbakhsh, M. (2018) ‘Control of Morphological Variation Through Population Based Fitness Criteria’, Learning, Adapting and Prototyping, Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference, Beijing, China, The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, vol. 1, pp. 153–162.

 

Abstract:

A primary challenge for the application of an evolutionary process as a design tool is the ability to maintain variation amongst design solutions while simultaneously increasing in fitness. The ‘golden rule’ of balancing exploration versus exploitation of solutions within the population becomes more critical when the solution set is required to present a controlled degree of phenotypic variation but ensure that convergence of the solution set continues towards increased levels of fitness. The experiments presented within this paper address the control of variation throughout the simulation by means of incorporating a population-based fitness criterion that is utilised as a fitness objective and is calculated dynamically throughout the algorithmic run in both single and multi objective design problems.

CAADRIA_Control of Morphological Variati
 

Paper Title:

Evolutionary Algorithms for Generating Urban Morphology: Variations and Multiple Objectives (Download)

 

Citation:

Makki, M., Showkatbakhsh, M., Tabony, A. and Weinstock, M. (2018) ‘Evolutionary Algorithms for Generating Urban Morphology: Variations and Multiple Objectives’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 5–35.

 

Abstract:

Morphological variation of urban tissues, which evolve through the optimisation of multiple conflicting objectives, benefit significantly from the application of robust metaheuristic search processes that utilise search and optimisation mechanisms for design problems that have no clear single optimal solution, as well as a solution search space that is too large for a ‘brute-force’ manual approach. As such, and within the context of the experiments presented within this article, the rapidly changing environmental, climatic and demographic global conditions necessitates the utilisation of stochastic search processes for generating design solutions that optimise for multiple conflicting objectives by means of controlled and directed morphological variation within the urban fabric.

Gen999_LinesOverLaid.jpg
 

Paper Title:

Urban-Tissue Optimization through Evolutionary Computation (Download)

 

Citation:

Navarro, D., Makki, M. and Bermejo, A. (2018) ‘Urban-Tissue Optimization through Evolutionary Computation’, Mathematics, vol. 6, no. Special Issue: Evolutionary Computation, pp. 1–16.

 

Abstract:

The experiments analyzed in this paper focus their research on the use of Evolutionary Computation (EC) applied to a parametrized urban tissue. Through the application of EC, it is possible to develop a design under a single model that addresses multiple conflicting objectives. The experiments presented are based on Cerdà’s master plan in Barcelona, specifically on the iconic Eixample block which is grouped into a 4 × 4 urban Superblock. The proposal aims to reach the existing high density of the city while reclaiming the block relations proposed by Cerdà’s original plan. Generating and ranking multiple individuals in a population through several generations ensures a flexible solution rather than a single “optimal” one. Final results in the Pareto front show a successful and diverse set of solutions that approximate Cerdà’s and the existing Barcelona’s Eixample states. Further analysis proposes different methodologies and considerations to choose appropriate individuals within the front depending on design requirements.

MATHEMATICS_Urban-Tissue Optimization th
 

Paper Title:

Robot-Based Facade Spatial Assembly Optimization (Download)

 

Citation:

Ali, A. K., Lee, O. J. and Song, H. (2020) ‘Robot-based facade spatial assembly optimization’, Journal of Building Engineering, Elsevier, vol. 33, pp. 1–16.

 

Abstract:

Robotic involvement in construction is still in its initial stages compared to other industries. Conventionally, the facade panel picking position is done manually by trial and error. The designer chooses a place to pick up a facade piece within reach of the robot arm, and then simulates the entire pick and place process in a digital model before applying to the assembly on the construction job site. After that the designer might detect errors, collisions, or singularities, which require the designer to modify the position of picking by changing the location or orientation of the module, thus repeating the simulation cycle until they reach a satisfactory result with no errors or collisions. This work is usually considered monotonous, inefficient, and time consuming. Therefore, this research proposes an optimization process implemented in design stage of construction project via static performance criteria in order to automatically search for the best picking location within the reach of the robot arm. The goal is to automate the process of robot location finding and solve the limitations of modular robot assembly simulation processes in order to allow for effective execution during the robotic construction implementation. The proposed approach, called iFobot, consists of three modules: Facade Generative Modeling (iFobot-D), Robot Position Optimization (iFobot-B), and Culminating Feedback to BIM (iFobot-L). Specifically, the scope of the paper is limited to the robot arm and facade picking and placing location finding processes. This research allows initial assessment of the possible assembly process as regards the dimensions of modules and hence the overall dimensions of the system, which subsequently influences assembly implementation in the construction job site. A set of generative algorithms were developed using commercially developed visual programming language that automatically populate facade modules on the building envelope, find the robot and facade assembly locations with their quantity take-off, and integrate the module with the BIM environment. A case study has been developed to validate and test the proposed system. The results prove that the system generates optimized locations for the robot arm workstations with the lowest possible collision and reachability rate while addressing robot operation time reduction, thus reducing risks encountered during facade assembly and increasing productivity. Moreover, the iFobot is predicted to influence decision making during the facade assembly process on a physical construction job site.

Robot-based facade spatial assembly opti
 

Paper Title:

Multi-Agent-Based Urban Vegetation Design (Download)

 

Citation:

Ali, A. K., Song, H., Lee, O. J., Kim, E. S. and Mohammed Ali, H. H. (2020) ‘Multi-Agent-Based Urban Vegetation Design’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, vol. 17, no. 9, p. 3075.

 

Abstract:

Urban vegetation is an essential element of the urban city pedestrian walkway. Despite city forest regulations and urban planning best practices, vegetation planning lacks clear comprehension and compatibility with other urban elements surrounding it. Urban planners and academic researchers currently devote vital attention to include most of the urban elements and their impact on the occupants and the environment in the planning stage of urban development. With the advancement in computational design, they have developed various algorithms to generate design alternatives and measure their impact on the environment that meets occupants’ needs and perceptions of their city. In particular, multi-agent-based simulations show great promise in developing rule compliance with urban vegetation design tools. This paper proposed an automatic urban vegetation city rule compliance approach for pedestrian pathway vegetation, leveraging multi-agent system and algorithmic modeling tools. This approach comprises three modules: rule compliance (T-Rule), street vegetation design tool (T-Design), and multi-agent alternative generation (T-Agent). Notably, the scope of the paper is limited to trees, shrubbery, and seating area configurations in the urban pathway context. To validate the developed design tool, a case study was tested, and the vegetation design tool generated the expected results successfully. A questionnaire was conducted to give feedback on the use of the developed tool for enhancing positive experience of the developed tool. It is anticipated that the proposed tool has the potential to aid urban planners in decision-making and develop more practical vegetation planting plans compared with the conventional Two-Dimensional (2D) plans, and give the city occupants the chance to take part in shaping their city by merely selecting from predefined parameters in a user interface to generate their neighborhood pathway vegetation plans. Moreover, this approach can be extended to be embedded in an interactive map where city occupants can shape their neighborhood greenery and give feedback to urban planners for decision-making.

Pages from Multi-Agent Based Urban Veget
 
Design of SocioCultural Oriented Urban T

Paper Title:

The Design of Social and Cultural Orientated Urban Tissues Through Evolutionary Processes (Download)

 

Citation:

Choi, J., Nguyen, P. C. T. and Makki, M. (2020) ‘The design of social and cultural orientated urban tissues through evolutionary processes’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, SAGE Publications, pp. 1–29.

 

Abstract:

The research examines how social and cultural properties can be utilised as an alternative planning scheme to improve urban morphology and enhance the overall experience of individuals within the city. The aim is for these socio-cultural properties to be translated into quantitative data sets that define the morphological characteristics of the urban tissue. Through the use of evolutionary optimisation methods, the process of urban growth is simulated through a series of individuals that adapt and optimise for multiple design criteria. The experiment presented quantifies the social and cultural properties of a superblock within the city of Kyoto to generate an urban tissue that is susceptible to future growth.

 

Paper Title:

Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Japanese Fabrication and Advanced Digital Tools (Download)

 

Citation:

Makki, M., Matsuoka, M., Ilic, A., Franceschini, L. and Beneitez, J. (2020) ‘Bridging the Gap Between Traditional Japanese Fabrication and Advanced Digital Tools’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 557–564.

 

Abstract:

Traditional Japanese woodworking techniques have been inherited between generations in the past millennia through the Daiku, the master carpenter that teaches apprentices the precise and valuable skills of carpentry through methodical and time-intensive processes. Throughout the 21st Century, with the development of advanced construction methods, coupled with younger generations exhibiting little interest in following the Daiku, this valuable cultural artform is becoming less prevalent in Japanese culture. However, the development of advanced digital tools offers an avenue through which the knowledge and skills of older generations can be both transferred and developed by younger generations. In this context, the paper examines the relationship between traditional Japanese woodworking and advanced computational tools by bringing experts from both disciplines for the design and construction of a Japanese Pagoda, in which the significance of bridging the gap between both domains is highlighted across the design, fabrication and assembly of the project.

osaka.jpg
 

Paper Title:

The Taikoo Shing Superblock: Addressing Urban Stresses Through Sequential Evolutionary Simulations (Download)

 

Citation:

Randall, M. Kordrostami, T., Makki, M. (2020) ‘The Taikoo Shing Superblock: Addressing urban stresses through sequential evolutionary simulations’, D. Holzer, W. Nakapan, A. Globa, I. Koh (eds.), Proceedings of the 25th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Online, pp. 415-424.

 

Abstract:

The multiplicity of networks, connections and relationships that exist in every city - complex and varied - are inherent to the urban fabric. Variation within the built form is integral to ensure adaptability to environmental and climatic conditions imposed on cities over generations. This research aims to highlight the benefits of utilizing sequential evolutionary simulations, to arrive at a more resolved solution-set that addresses urban challenges of the Taiko Shing superblock in Hong Kong.

taikooshing.jpg
 

Paper Title:

Multi-Objective Optimization of Robotically Bent In-Situ Reinforcement System (Download)

 

Citation:

Showkatbakhsh, M., Erdine, E. and Rodriguez, A. L. (2020) ‘Multi-Objective Optimization of Robotically Bent In-Situ Reinforcement System’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 171–178.

 

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel process towards the application of multi-objective optimization as the form-finding process for the integration of computational design, fabrication, and construction sequences. The design and construction of a doubly curved large-scale prototype made of textilereinforced GRC shotcrete with a robotically fabricated insitu reinforcement system serves as the case study for the proposed methodology. Global geometry form-finding process takes into consideration the location and geometrical properties of the in-situ reinforcement rebar system, robotic rod-bending constraints, structural performance, and functional objectives. These criteria are integrated through the application of a multi-objective optimization method in order to formulate multiple trade-off solutions that possess multiple constraints (fitness objectives) which are primarily in conflict with each other and are intended towards automation in fabrication. The primary contribution of the research is the demonstration of a multi-objective optimization methodology that incorporates geometrical form-finding, material and fabrication constraints, and FEA as design drivers during the early stages of design. This optimization method can be further extended and utilized across a multitude of scales in order to save energy, materials, and cost in architectural projects.

GOPR0254.JPG
 

Paper Title:

Homeostatic Generative Design Process: Emergence of the Adaptive Architectural Form and Skin to Excessive Solar Radiation (Download)

 

Citation:

Showkatbakhsh, M. and Kaviani, S. (2020) ‘Homeostatic generative design process: Emergence of the adaptive architectural form and skin to excessive solar radiation’, International Journal of Architectural Computing, SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England, pp. 1–16.

 

Abstract:

Natural organisms through their evolutionary developments, acquire adaptive morphological and behavioural characteristics within their environmental contexts. Through homeostatic behaviours, organisms, individually and collectively, will sustain internal and external equilibrium in face of environmental fluctuations. There is a wide range of morphological and behavioural traits across multiple species that are rooted in their homeostatic mechanisms throughout their lives. This paper presents an evolutionary design workflow with embedded homeostatic principles to generate a building cluster that is adapted to the contexts with extreme solar radiation.

Homeostatic Generative Design Processes.
 
 

Paper Title:

Application of Homeostatic Principles within Evolutionary Design Processes: Adaptive Urban Tissues (Download)

 

Citation:

Showkatbakhsh, M. and Makki, M. (2020) ‘Application of Homeostatic Principles within Evolutionary Design Processes: Adaptive Urban Tissues’, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, Oxford, vol. 7, no. 1, pp 1 -17.

 

Abstract:

Nature is a repository of dynamic and intertwined processes ready to be analyzed and simulated. Homeostasis, as a scale-free and universal biological process across all species, ensures adaptability to perturbations caused by intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. Homeostatic processes by which species maintain their stability are strongly present through ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of living beings. Forms and behaviors of species are imperative to their homeostatic conditions. Although biomimicry has been established for many decades, and has made significant contributions to engineering and architecture, homeostasis has rarely been part of this field of research. The experiments presented in this paper aim to examine the applicability of biological principles of homeostasis into generative design processes in order to evolve urban superblocks with a degree of morphological and behavioral adaptation to environmental changes; the objective is to eventually develop a modus operandi for the design and development of cities with embedded dynamic adaptation attributes.

Gen999_LinesOverLaid.jpg

Paper Title:

Context Specific Evolutionary Design: An Analysis on Computational Abstraction of Modern Urban Complexity (Download)

 

Citation:

Zhai, Y. and Riederer, E. (2020) ‘Context Specific Evolutionary Design: An Analysis on Computational Abstraction of Modern Urban Complexity’, 2020 Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation in Architecture and Urban Design (SIMAUD), Online, pp. 245–252.

 

Abstract:

Evolutionary design is used to adapt urban systems to predictions such as rapid growing density and effects of climate change scenarios. These effects have weakened the strategies on which ancient cities were built and thrived. Fez el Bali’s Medina can be seen as a drastic case and is therefore chosen for theoretical investigations. The Medina nowadays has lost its quality as a functioning system, characterized by a coherent relation of hierarchical order and randomness based on a cultural heritage. In this paper’s architectural approach a city is redeveloped on the basis of the earlier well-functioning ancient city after which an urban patch is then developed further. In order to react to the unpredictable changing conditions, we propose an open system generated by outlining the qualities the Medina was built on and developing this further to be able to react to changes within the city and beyond it. The key element of this paper is to expand on the level of complexity in Evolutionary Design by operating on the urban scale and contextualized to push its computational potential. Expanding on the application of design strategies of Genetic Algorithms (GA) we incorporate rule-based multi-scale procedural modeling based on the vernacular urban qualities, while examine urban morphological variation evolved in response to conflicting criteria by means of a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Approach (MOEA).

SIMAUD_Context Specific Evolutionary Des
 

Paper Title:

Optioneering Methods for Optimization - Methods of exploring primary and secondary performance criteria in urban design (Download)

 

Citation:

Petrov, M. and Walker, J. (2020) ‘Optioneering Methods for Optimization - Methods of exploring primary and secondary performance criteria in urban design’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 29-36.

 

Abstract:

Architectural design optimization (ADO) is the notion of satisfying performance criteria within a constraint parameter space to find the best solution with the least trade-offs. This process tends to produce a vast amount of designs of varying quality and requires design space exploration (DSE) to review the myriad of designs so that an optimal candidate for design development can be chosen. This paper will explore different applied workflows for using optimization in an urban design competition, which seek to overcome the limitations of using optimization and DSE with a time constraint.

Optioneering Methods for Optimization.JP
 

Paper Title:

The Evolutionary-algorithm-based Automation of the Initial Stage of Apartment Building Design (Download)

 

Citation:

Jansen, I. and Piątek, Ł. (2020) ‘The Evolutionary-algorithm-based Automation of the Initial Stage of Apartment Building Design’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 105-114.

 

Abstract:

The development of information technologies has resulted in a strong return of interest in the concept of automating the design process. Most of the attempts such as works of Hersey and Freedman, Duarte or the PRISM application are based on shape grammars. Another approach is evolutionary simulations in concept creation augmentation such as works of Dogan, Saratsis and Reinhart or Nahara and Terzidis.This study examines to what extent evolutionary algorithms can be used to automate early stages of residential multi-family building architectural design. To facilitate informed decision-making, a tool capable of analysing a building plot and proposing the best fitting building shape was designed and tested with Polish legal regulations taken into consideration.A script generating, analysing, and evolutionally optimising a 3D model of the apartment building, was developed. All models met the basic legal conditions and were optimised by four criteria - view obstruction, insolation, maximal allowed floor area built and building compactness. The script was later used on selected building plots producing thousands of solutions. The best performing solutions were selected and presented together with their calculated parameters.

jansen.JPG
 

Paper Title:

Algorithmic Planning and Assessment of Emergency Settlements and Refugee Camps (Download)

 

Citation:

Andriasyan, M., Zanelli, A., Yeghikyan, G., Asher, R. and Haeusler, H. (2020) ‘Algorithmic Planning and Assessment of Emergency Settlements and Refugee Camps’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 115-124.

 

Abstract:

The planning quality of refugee camps profoundly affects the people living there. Because of the short time span allotted to planners due to the state of emergency, camps are often poorly planned or not planned at all. This paper proposes tools and methods developed through computational modelling algorithms that can enhance the design procedure and provide instant feedback about the plan performance to the planner. The developed planning framework allows defining the planning guidelines which will be tested for compliance. The paper also shows case studies of analysing an existing refugee camp.

Refugee.JPG
 

Paper Title:

Design Computation to Robotic Production Methods for Reciprocal Tessellation of Free-from Timber Structures - Design, production, and assembly of 100 years Bauhaus wood Pavilion (Download)

 

Citation:

Mostafavi, S., Kastrati, V., Badr, H. and Mazlan, Sh. (2020) ‘Design Computation to Robotic Production Methods for Reciprocal Tessellation of Free-from Timber Structures - Design, production, and assembly of 100 years Bauhaus wood Pavilion’,  Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 413-422.

 

Abstract:

In a reciprocal frame structure, at any given joint, there are only two members connecting to each other. Therefore, the joints in a standard reciprocal structure are topologically identical. Due to these topological similarities between the joints, the parametric modeling of a reciprocal frame structure applied to a geometrically regular surface, such as domes and symmetric shells, is practical, and it has been explored in several projects previously. In this context, this paper presents an integrated computational design to robotic production process of a free form wooden pavilion with a non-uniform tessellation pattern with differentiated cell sizes. The case study, on the one hand, elaborates on the challenges of solving reciprocal tessellation on complex geometries, and on the other hand, discusses the chosen and developed robotic production approach as a feedback loop that informs the design process.

Sina.JPG
 

Paper Title:

User-driven Configurable Architectural Assemblies - Towards artificial intelligence-embedded responsive environments (Download)

 

Citation:

Buš, P. (2020) ‘User-driven Configurable Architectural Assemblies - Towards artificial intelligence-embedded responsive environments’, Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 483-490.

 

Abstract:

The paper theoretically elaborates the idea of individual users' customisation activities to create and configure responsive spatial scenarios by means of reconfigurable interactive adaptive assemblies. It reflects Gordon Pask's concept of human and device interaction based on its unpredictable notion speculating a potential to be enhanced by artificial intelligence learning approach of an assembly linked with human activator's participative inputs. Such a link of artificial intelligence, human agency and interactive assembly capable to generate its own spatial configurations by itself and users' stimuli may lead to a new understanding of humans' role in the creation of spatial scenarios. The occupants take the prime role in the evolution of spatial conditions in this respect. The paper aims to position an interaction between the human agents and artificial devices as a participatory and responsive design act to facilitate creative potential of participants as unique individuals without pre-specified or pre-programmed goal set by the designer. Such an approach will pave a way towards true autonomy of responsive built environments, determined by an individual human agent and behaviour of the spatial assemblies to create authentic responsive built forms in a digital and physical space.

Bus.jpg
 

Paper Title:

Generating architectural plan with evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms: a benchmark case with an existent construction system (Download)

 

Citation:

Canestrino, Giuseppe; Laura, Greco; Spada, Francesco; Lucente, Roberta; "Generating architectural plan with evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms: a benchmark case with an existent construction system", p. 149-156 . In: Congreso SIGraDi 2020. São Paulo: Blucher, 2020. ISSN 2318-6968, DOI 10.5151/sigradi2020-21

 

Abstract:

In architectural design, evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms (EMOA) have found use in numerous practical applications in which qualitative and quantitative aspects can be transformed into fitness functions to be optimized. This paper shows that they can be used in an architectural plan design process that starts from a more traditional approach. The benchmark case uses a novel construction system, called Ac.Ca. Building, with a vast architectural and technological database, arleady validated, to generate architectural plan for a residential towerbuilding with a parametric approach and EMOA. The proposed framework differs from past research because uses spatial units with high level of architectural and tecnological definition.

Generating architectural plan with evolu
 

Paper Title:

Evolutionary Design Processes with Embedded Homeostatic Principles - Adaptation of Architectural Form and Skin to Excessive Solar Radiation (Download)

 

Citation:

Showkatbakhsh, M., Kaviani, S., Weinstock, M. (2021) “Evolutionary Design Processes with Embedded Homeostatic Principles: Adaptation of Architectural Form and Skin to Excessive Solar Radiation”, Journal of Computer-Aided Design and Applications, vol 18 (5) pp. 914 – 953

 

Abstract:

Natural systems develop efficient means of adapting to extreme environmental stresses throughout their evolutionary developments. Homeostasis is the term for the biological processes by which individual beings and collectives maintain their equilibrium in their environment, and there is a wide range of morphological and behavioral traits across multiple species that are rooted in their homeostatic mechanisms throughout their lives. To examine and reflect on the interrelations of forms, processes, and behaviors can yield useful strategies to develop architectural morphologies with significant environmental performance enhancements. An evolutionary design process with embedded homeostatic principles to generate building clusters with morphological characteristics to enhance the clusters’ environmental performance in a context with excessive solar radiation has been proposed in this paper. 

Figure_21.jpg
 

Paper Title:

Parametric Design and Comfort Optimization of Dynamic Shading Structures (Download)

 

Citation:

Chi, D. A., González M., E., Valdivia, R. and Gutiérrez J., E. (2021) ‘Parametric Design and Comfort Optimization of Dynamic Shading Structures’, Sustainability, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, vol. 13, no. 14, p. 7670

 

Abstract:

This work implements parametric tools to optimize the environmental design of urban adaptive shadings through multiobjective evolutionary algorithms that look for solutions of dynamic (time-changing) structures used in open public spaces. The proposal is located in Malecon Cancun Tajamar in the southeast part of Mexico, and the main objective is to enhance the thermal comfort of users as well as to become part of the social dynamics of the place reinforcing identity through appropriation. The proposed workflow includes four steps: (1) geometric modelling by parametric modelling tools; (2) simulation of environmental parameters by using BPS tools; (3) shape optimization by using an evolutionary algorithm; and (4) environmental verification of the results. The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was used to assess the outdoor thermal comfort derived from the dynamic shadings. The results showed a significant improvement in the thermal comfort with absolute UTCI differences of 3.9, 7.4, and 3.1 °C at 8, 12, and 16 h, respectively, during the summer; and absolute differences of 1.4, 3.5, and 2 °C at 8, 12, and 16 h, respectively, during the winter. The proposed workflow can help to guide the early design process of dynamic shadings by finding optimal solutions that enhance outdoor thermal comfort.

image.jpg
 

Paper Title:

Exploring the Self-Organizing Structure of the Moroccan Medina: A Simulation Model for Generating Urban Form (Download)

 

Citation:

Cheddadi, A., Hotta, K. and Ikeda, Y. (2021) ‘Exploring the Self-Organizing Structure of the Moroccan Medina: A Simulation Model for Generating Urban Form’, Architecture in the Age of Disruptive Technologies: Transformations and Challenges, Cairo, Egypt, pp. 672–685

 

Abstract:

This research explores the use of generative design and computational simulations in the exploration of urban compositions based on traditional urban forms from North Africa. Upon the examination of these urban settlements, we discuss the relationship between traditional urban form and generative urbanism theory. We investigate several factors that allow these self-generated urban tissues to be highly adaptive to social, spatial, and environmental change. Following this, we formulate guidelines to reinterpret some of the characteristics of these urban forms. Built on these features, the simulation seeks to explore the generation of abstract urban forms and their optimization. In this regard, this experiment utilizes 3D and parametric design tools (Rhinoceros 3D and Grasshopper) to define a generative urban simulation and optimization model. It explores the use of algorithmic design methodology in the definition and optimization of the generated urban form. For this purpose, grid-based operations with base modules are used in conjunction with introverted urban blocks. We employ evolutionary algorithms and Pareto front methodology to visualize and rank a multitude of optimized results that are evaluated using three different and conflicting design objectives: sun exposure, physical accessibility, and urban density. The results are ranked and analyzed by comparing the outcomes of these different objective functions. The result of this study shows that it is possible to allow a degree of diversification of a myriad of urban configurations with a generative form-finding algorithm while still maintaining a rather commendable adaptability to various design constraints in the case of high-density settings. In this research, it is anticipated that an algorithmic design model is a fitting contemporary solution that can simulate the philosophy of a design made without a designer and offer a wide range of objective-based spatial solutions. It sets the stage for a discussion about the relevance of reinterpreting traditional urban forms from north Africa by designing a generative model that allows for self-organization.

ascaad2021_069.jpg
 

Paper Title:

Reinterpretation of the Dougong Joint by the use of Parametric Tools and Robotic Fabrication Techniques (Download)

 

Citation:

Zhao, J., Lombardi, D., Chen, H., Agkathidis, A. (2021) 'Reinterpretation of the Dougong Joint by the use of Parametric Tools and Robotic Fabrication Techniques' Proceedings of the 39th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia, 8-10 September 2021, pp. 233-242

 

Abstract:

Traditionally, Chinese architecture was based on the use of timber frameworks as structural system. The Dougong joint is amongst the typical connection typologies, widely applied in the timber heritage buildings in China. Each component of the Dougong (bucket-arch joint) conforms to a strict structural proportion in addition to simple but efficient connection methods between its different components. However, the spread of the structure in modern architecture is limited due to high labour cost. Parametric design and digital fabrication techniques have greatly promoted the development of complex timber structures in recent years, which could be introduced in order to reinterpret the Dougong joint. In continuation of our research on exploring the application of robotic technologies for the fabrication of traditional Chinese timber joints, our paper will investigate the feasibility of the structural logic of the Dougong and how it could be applied in a modern timber framework structure.

Screenshot 2021-09-14 211407.jpg
 

Paper Title:

Data-driven placemaking: Public space canopy design through multi-objective optimisation considering shading, structural and social performances (Download)

 

Citation:

Van Ameijde, J., Ma, C. Y., Goepel, G., Kirsten, C. and Wong, J. (2021) ‘Data-driven placemaking: Public space canopy design through multi-objective optimisation considering shading, structural and social performance’, Frontiers of Architectural Research [Online]. DOI: 10.1016/j.foar.2021.10.007

 

Abstract:

In the context of ongoing densification of cities and aging urban populations, public spaces are a crucial infrastructure to support the physical and mental wellbeing of urban residents. The design of public space furniture elements is often standardised, and not considered in relation to environmental conditions and mechanisms of social interaction. This article presents a digital workflow to generate site-specific designs for shaded public seating, considering the relationships of local public places to their surroundings. A strategy for customised and site-specific design is developed through the use of multiple software tools, employing evolutionary algorithms and multi-objective optimisation. The method is applied to a small public space canopy prototype installed within a public housing estate in Hong Kong, incorporating additional criteria to achieve a low-cost and light-weight structure. Through multiple stages of refinement and optimisation, a material, structural and social performance-driven outcome was achieved that creates a shaded space for public seating, people watching and social interaction. As part of a larger research agenda exploring architectural form-finding and environmental psychology, the project represents potential new applications in the emerging field of socially driven computational design.

 

Paper Title:

Generating Optimal High-rise Building Suggestions According to Solar Radiation and Shade Using Genetic Algorithms (Download)

 

Citation:

Saltık, E. (2021). Generating optimal high-rise building suggestions according to solar radiation and shade using genetic algorithms. JCoDe: Journal of Computational Design, 2(2), 25-50.

 

Abstract:

Heating and cooling costs and energy consumption in buildings constitute a great burden. In addition, because high-rise buildings create long and large shadows, they limit and sometimes completely prevent the hours of direct sunlight for the surrounding buildings. Due to these two features, high-rise buildings increase the energy consumption of the city and reduce the comfort of life. High-rise buildings also try to create as much area as possible, as they have a specific purpose of maximum rentable area. Can we reduce energy consumption in the building itself and its surroundings, and increase the quality of life by using evolutionary approaches in the concept design phase of high-rise buildings? The aim of this study is to achieve these goals at the optimum level without reducing the targeted total building area excessively. It is an important feature that the designer can see and intervene in the concept phase of different solution proposals that meet these conditions by using genetic algorithms. Numerous studies have been conducted on form and mass in architectural design using evolutionary approaches and genetic algorithms. With developments in computation, the number and level of detail of these studies have increased and the computation time has shortened. In this study, Wallacei plugin, which is an evolutionary approach plugin using NSGA-II / Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II, was used. In addition to the studies focusing on the urban texture and features with genetic algorithms, there are also studies focusing on the building design and the building envelope. This study focuses on the mass of the building and its effect on the urban fabric and can be a method for early-stage mass analysis and design. In order to test these suggestions, a sample existing high-rise building and its different alternatives produced by evolutionary algorithms were compared by fitness values. The Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) in Chicago was chosen as an example building. The simple but effective mass form of the structure provides advantages and diversity in analysis and calculations. The case building is located in a climatic region like Chicago where all four seasons are experienced, and its effects on its surroundings can be easily observed. In the methodology, we calculate the total floor area of the current design of Sears Tower, the solar radiation it receives in a certain period, the shadow it casts on the nearby buildings and the sky view from different parts of the building as first step. The second step is to make choices among the alternatives produced according to these four eligibility criteria. As a result of the study, forms that provide good fitness values from the original building in different criteria were produced, and results that were better than the original design in all other values were obtained by meeting the building area criterion. Rhinoceros 3D program and sub-plugins of Grasshopper plugin were used to make these analyzes. The Elk plugin was used for city data of Chicago. The Ladybug plugin was used for sun and shadow analysis. The Wallacei plugin was used for simulation and analysis with genetic algorithms. At this stage of the study, materials and structural elements are out of scope, analyzes are made over mass studies.

 

Paper Title:

Optimum external shading system for counterbalancing glare probability and daylight illuminance in Sydney’s residential buildings (Download)

 

Citation:

Sorooshnia, E., Rashidi, M., Rahnamayiezekavat, P., Rezaei, F. and Samali, B. (2021) ‘Optimum external shading system for counterbalancing glare probability and daylight illuminance in Sydney’s residential buildings’, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print, no. ahead-of-print [Online]. DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2021-0191

 

Abstract:

Optimisation of daylight admission through window is crucial for alleviating glare while maintaining useful daylight levels in order to enhance occupants' health, visual comfort and moderating lighting energy consumption. Amongst various solutions, fixed external shade is an affordable solution for housing spaces that need to be sophisticatedly designed, especially during the period of increasing home spaces as working environments. In the humid subtropical region, daylight control plays an important role in indoor comfort, particularly with areas with a high window to wall ratio (WWR). Due to the insufficient amount of such study on non-office spaces in Australia, shading-related standards are not addressed in Australian building codes.

 

Paper Title:

Reinterpreting Self-organizing Urban Tissues by Designing a Generative Model (Download)

 

Citation:

Cheddadi, M., Hotta, K., Ikeda, Y., (2019), 'Reinterpreting Self-organizing Urban Tissues by Designing a Generative Model', Revisiting the Role of Architecture for 'Surviving’ Development. 53rd International Conference of the Architectural Science Association 2019, Avlokita Agrawal and Rajat Gupta (eds), pp. 175–184. © published by the Architectural Science Association

 

Abstract:

This research discusses designing an experimental framework to reinterpret the urban form of self-organizing traditional Islamic cities with computational design tools. These types of ancient urban tissues are characterized with emergent behaviour that is expressed through the incorporation, in their spatial structure, of apparent randomness and inherent complex organization. The said framework highlights some of the important physiological and organisational features of these urban environments before reinterpreting to be incorporated in a computational design process. A set of functional constraints and objectives inspired by characteristics of the aforementioned urban settings are defined for a form generation algorithm. This methodology is described through a threefold process comprising of formulation, generation and evaluation steps that allow for the optimization of the urban form. While making use of algorithmic design software to define the components for a generative urban design model, this research also uses multi-objective optimization evolutionary algorithms as a theoretical basis for the optimization and analysis of this model. An evolutionary computing solver and Pareto front evaluation methodology are used in order to evaluate and visualize a multitude of optimized solutions. Built on these features, the development of an experimental urban model means both to explore the generation of proposed results and to develop the design system behind it.

 

Paper Title:

Design of a cylindrical container using the Wallacei evolutionary engine (Download)

 

Citation:

Menendez, L., Espinosa Escudero, M., Somonte, M., (2021) 'Design of a cylindrical container using the Wallacei evolutionary engine', Técnica industrial, ISSN 0040-1838, N 328,, ags. 38-43

 

Abstract:

In the present work, a new model for the design of a cylindrical container with a capacity of 250 ml is developed. The aim is to use the minimum amount of material possible to manufacture the container and, at the same time, provide it with a base as much voluminous as possible. To this end, the Grasshopper 3D visual programming language and the evolutionary Wallacei engine are used. The different options of the tool are explored and, once the simulation has been carried out, the most significant solutions are selected and analyzed

 

Paper Title:

Urban design optimization: generative approaches towards urban fabrics with improved transit accessibility and walkability (Download)

 

Citation:

Lima, F., Brown, N., Duarte, J., (2021) 'Urban Design Optimization: Generative Approaches towards Urban Fabrics with Improved Transit Accessibility and Walkability - generative approaches towards urban fabrics with improved transit accessibility and walkability'

 

Abstract:

This paper investigates computational optimization techniques at the urban design scale, aiming to improve the performance of urban fabric layouts according to predefined evaluation metrics. To this end, this work addresses the use of optimization tools in urban design by comparing various optimization algorithms for generating urban fabrics with improved walkability and by analyzing the outcomes of different urban design rules. These rules formulate orthogonal and non-orthogonal grids from the perspective of transit accessibility (TA), thereby minimizing automobile usage and improving the walkability of neighbourhoods. Transit accessibility is also evaluated alongside estimated infrastructure cost to verify the suitability of applying optimization in urban design. Our results suggest that the RBFOpt algorithm performs best for generating urban fabrics according to our quantitative design objectives; more flexible and complex grids in terms of shape and dimensions tend to deliver greater TA than rectangular and uniform-oriented grids; different block patterns can lead to solutions more directed at TA or to infrastructure cost, outlining a trade-off; and multicriteria optimization helped in identifying designs that balanced transit accessibility and infrastructure cost.